Packaging - 1. Introduction
A package is a piece of software that forms an atomic unit. A typical package contains an executable program, the data files it needs, message catalogs for internationalisation and documentation. In Fink, packages can exist in two forms: the package description and the ready-to-install binary package file.
The package description is a human readable text file that contains everything needed to build a package, i.e. to create the binary package file. The information includes meta-data (like the package's name and a prose description of its purpose), the URL of the source code and the instructions necessary to configure, compile and wrap up the package. The description may be accompanied by a patch file.
A binary package file is a file archive that contains the actual files that make up the package, i.e. executables, data files, message catalogs, libraries, include files, etc. The package file also contains some meta-data for the package. Installing a binary package mainly consists of unpacking its contents as it is already in a ready-to-use form. Since Fink builds on the dpkg package manager, the binary package files are in the dpkg format and have the extension .deb.
A package is identified by three strings: the package name, the version and the revision. All of these may contain lower-case letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), dashes (-; note: not allowed in the revision), plus signs (+) and dots (.). Other characters are not allowed. In particular, capital letters and underscores are not allowed.
The package name is simply the name of the software, e.g. openssh. The version, also called the upstream version, is the version identifier of the original software package. It is okay to use letters in the version, e.g. 2.9p1. Both fink and dpkg know how to sort these correctly. The revision is a counter that is increased when the package description changes. It starts at 1 and should be reset to 1 when the upstream version changes. The revision must not contain dashes. The full name of a package is all three items concatenated, with dashes in between, e.g. openssh-2.9p1-2.
Next: 2. Package Descriptions